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哈佛大学实验既疯狂又有争议性的地球降温计划_鸭脖娱乐app官方下载

2021-04-09 06:27:02
本文摘要:In a lab at Harvard, researchers are trying to replicate the conditions of the stratosphere–the part of the atmosphere that stretches roughly six to 31 miles above the surface of the planet–in test tubes. Their goal: to better understand what might happen if humanity eventually decides to embark on a radical, controversial plan to temporarily cool the planet by spraying clouds of particles into the sky.在美国哈佛大学的一个试验室里,研究工作人员妄图在试管婴儿中复制平流层的标准--地球大气层的一部分,在地球表层上廷伸大概6至31公里。

In a lab at Harvard, researchers are trying to replicate the conditions of the stratosphere–the part of the atmosphere that stretches roughly six to 31 miles above the surface of the planet–in test tubes. Their goal: to better understand what might happen if humanity eventually decides to embark on a radical, controversial plan to temporarily cool the planet by spraying clouds of particles into the sky.在美国哈佛大学的一个试验室里,研究工作人员妄图在试管婴儿中复制平流层的标准--地球大气层的一部分,在地球表层上廷伸大概6至31公里。她们的总体目标是:更优地讲解假如人们最终规定刚开始一项传统的、有异议的方案——根据向天上冒出粒子云来再次加温地球——哪些将不容易再次出现。If it ever happens, the process might involve sending planes into the sky to release particles of a compound like sulfur dioxide that can reflect some sunlight back into space and could temporarily cool the planet. Its not a fix for climate change, and its a form of geoengineering so extreme that it carries risks that may not be fully predictable. But as climate change progresses, its possible that the global community may someday decide it has to try it.假如了解再次出现了这类状况,这一全过程有可能还包含向上空起飞飞机场,使其出狱二氧化硫等化学物质的颗粒,这类化学物质能将一些太阳光源返外太空,并能再次让地球减温。

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它并不是气候变化的解决困难对策,只是一种极端化的地球工程项目计划方案,它带来的风险性有可能没法基本上预测分析。但伴随着气候变化的转好,地球联合会有可能在某一天规定必不可少试着一下这一计划方案。Our team here is doing the research because we believe theres still a lot of uncertainties around solar geoengineering, and we think theres a chance for potential benefits around the world, says Elizabeth Burns, managing director for Harvards Solar Geoengineering Research Program. But we also think theres the chance for very real risks.美国哈佛大学太阳能发电地球工程项目研究新项目经理伊利莎白·伯恩斯讲到:大家的精英团队已经进行此项研究,由于大家确信太阳能工程仍然不会有许多可变性,大家强调全世界都有可能借此机会获利。

但大家也强调这不会有实际的风险性。In one new study in Nature Climate Change, researchers from Harvard, MIT, and Princeton used a state-of-the-art, detailed computer model to look at what might happen if solar geoengineering was used to cut global temperature increases in half. In the scenario, they found that reducing warming would also offset the increasing intensity of hurricanes and would help moderate extreme rain and a lack of water for farming (in the model, rain decreased, but so did evaporation). Less than 0.5% of the world might see increases in impacts from climate change. Thats in contrast to some previous studies that found that this type of geoengineering might benefit some parts of the world while large other areas were harmed. Still, the study is limited, and doesnt look at all of the potential effects.在《大自然气候变化》杂志期刊的一项新的研究中,来源于美国哈佛大学、麻省理工大学和普林斯顿大学的研究工作人员用以了一种最技术设备的、详细的电子计算机实体模型,来认真观察假如运用太阳能工程将全球气温降低减为不容易再次出现哪些。在这类状况下,她们寻找,缓减气侯气候变化也不会缓解风暴抗压强度,并有利于恶变极端化降水和农牧业自来水的缺乏(在实体模型中,降水增加了,但制冷也增加了)。

全世界受气候变化危害的地区接近0.5%。这与以前的一些研究忽视,这些研究寻找,这类种类的工程项目有可能使全世界的一些地域获利,而别的绝大多数地域则遭受损害。即便如此,此项研究是受到限制的,并没看见全部的潜在性危害。

The concept of spraying chemicals into the sky to cool the Earth is not new. Its the same process that happens naturally when volcanoes erupt. In 1991, when Mount Pinatubo erupted and spewed millions of tons of sulfur dioxide into the atmosphere, it cooled the planet by half a degree Celsius for more than a year. But its only more recently that researchers have started seriously studying what might happen if humans deliberately do something similar. At this point, its still a very small area of study, with relatively little funding, and many unknowns.向天上乱倒化合物以加温地球的好点子并不新鮮。这和火山喷发时自然界再次出现的全过程是一样的。1992年,皮纳图博火山喷发,向空气中喷气式飞机了数百万吨二氧化硫,使地球降温0.5℃,不断了一年多。

但直至近期,研究工作人员才刚开始严肃认真研究假如人们故意保证类似的事儿不容易再次出现哪些。在这里一点上,这仍然是一个十分小的研究行业,资产较为较较少而且不会有很多未知量。Burns emphasizes, repeatedly, that the worlds priority needs to be reducing emissions to zero. Solar geoengineering cannot be a substitute for reducing emissions, because it does not address the root cause of climate change, she says. So if we are to achieve a stable climate, we really do need to reduce emissions to zero, and then also eventually remove the carbon dioxide thats in the atmosphere and store it underground or elsewhere. Those actions actually address the root cause. Solar geoengineering does not.伯恩斯一再强调,全球的重中之重是搭建零排放。

太阳能工程无法替代排放量,因为它没法解决困难气候变化的直接原因,她讲到。因而,假如我们要搭建一个稳定的气侯,大家显而易见务必将排放量增加到零,随后最终防止空气中的二氧化碳,并将其存储在地底或别的地区。

这种行動本质上解决困难了难题的显而易见。太阳能发电地球工程项目则要不然。It would only potentially be used temporarily while we rapidly reduce our emissions to the atmosphere and figure out cheap ways to separate carbon dioxide out, says Alan Robock, an environmental sciences professor at Princeton. So nobody talks about doing it instead of mitigation. It would be on top of our best efforts at mitigation. Robock has documented 27 potential risks of the idea, from the possibility of ozone depletion to potential droughts and a reduction in solar energy generation. The paper lists only six potential benefits, but one is significant: a reduction in surface air temperatures could reduce or reverse negative impacts of global warming, including floods, droughts, stronger storms, sea ice melting, and sea level rise.普林斯顿大学环境生态工程专家教授莱纳·罗博克(Alan Robock)答复:“在大家迅速增加对空气的有机废气,并找寻便宜的方式将二氧化碳提取回来的情况下,它只有可能被再次用以。

”“因而,没人讨论排放量而不是排放量。这将是我们在缓减气候变化层面仅次的期待。

罗伯克纪录了这一好点子的27个潜在性风险性,从活性氧耗损的概率到潜在性的干季和太阳能发电站的增加。这篇毕业论文只列出了六个潜在性的好处,但在其中一个很最重要:土层气体溫度的降低能够增加或挽留 全世界气候问题的不良影响,还包含水灾、干季、强飓风、海冰融化和水平面降低。

At Harvard, the researchers are studying the possibility of using calcium carbonate (the same particle found in chalk or toothpaste) rather than sulfur dioxide; while sulfur dioxide can speed up the destruction of the ozone layer, calcium carbonate could potentially help it and avoid some other risks. While their work is focused in the lab and computer modeling now, the team may be the first to do a real-world experiment, which would involve launching a balloon into the stratosphere, releasing a small amount of calcium carbonate, and then measure how the light scatters and changes in atmospheric chemistry. The team was interested in conducting the experiment this year, but wont move forward without the recommendation of an external, independent advisory committee that its creating. To us, the governance of this is equally as important as the scientific goals for the experiment, says Burns.美国哈佛大学的学者们已经科学研究用以碳酸钙的概率(便是铅笔和美白牙膏的颗粒物成份)而不是二氧化硫,由于SO2不容易加速损坏大气层。而碳酸钙必须防止这类状况另外避免一些别的的风险性。而她们的工作中是集中化于在实验室和电子计算机建模,精英团队有可能最先保证一个实际的实验,这将涉及向平流层起飞一个汽球,释放出小量的碳酸钙,随后精确测量光透射和空气有机化学的转变。

该精英团队对2020年进行此项实验特别喜爱,但假如没它已经开创的一个外界独立国家资询联合会的提议,她们会前行此项实验。伯恩斯讲到:“对大家而言,对这一难题的管理方法与实验的科学总体目标某种意义最重要。


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